The AEAM Glossaries provide readers with explanations of specific concepts and terms used in the AEAM Archives.

1. Glossary of Arts Education Terminology specific to the AEAM record collections.

2. Glossary of Archive Terminology specific to the AEAM record collections.

The Arts Education Archive Malaysia refers to a set of records specific to a particular strand of non-formal arts education in Malaysia. It consists of primary source historical records, documents and other materials accumulated, arranged, and documented by individuals and/or organisations for submission to the Arts Education Archive Malaysia.


Arts in EducationArts in Education integrates the fields of art and education. It refers to the process of learning in and through arts experiences or through observation and analysis of artworks. It also refers to the transfer of learning through the arts, to other curricular disciplines. Arts in education may use any form of the arts; performing arts (dance, drama, music, and storytelling) literature and poetry, visual arts, film, craft design, digital arts, media and photography, etc.
Arts EducationArts Education refers specifically to the teaching and learning of the arts i.e. providing access to — and taking part in — high quality and lifelong learning experiences in the arts, both in school and in the community. In the Malaysian context, arts education may refer to formal teaching of the arts within schools, traditional master student transmission of the arts in communities, or access to arts through institutional or private organisations.
Non-formal Arts EducationNon-formal arts education refers to activities which take place outside of mainstream/formal education curriculum and carry no formal accreditation. It involves arts practitioners offering organised arts education programmes for young people outside of the formal education system, either through institutional or not-for-profit organisations.
Children’s Theatre
  1. Young Peoples’ Theatre
Children’s Theatre refers to a collaborative form of art (drama in combination with other performative or visual art forms) that typically uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event for a children or family audiences in a specific place.

In the Malaysian context, the performers may be professional adult performers or amateur young performers (from 10-16 years of age). The term Young Peoples’ Theatre, or Theatre for Young Audiences is often used interchangeably with the term Children’s Theatre.
Applied ArtApplied Art applies to the application and the product of applying aesthetic principles to the design or decoration of utilitarian objects such as bookmaking, illustration, product design, fashion design, photography, and poster-making, etc.
Applied Theatre/Drama Applied Theatre is the practice of theatre or drama in non-traditional and non-theatrical settings such as in schools, communities, hospitals, the workplace, etc. It may deal with issues of public health, education, housing, social welfare, and juvenile and criminal justice.

Applied theatre uses theatrical and artistic skills, and vocabulary selectively for the purpose of learning and communication, for therapy or conflict handling, and for skill or awareness building.
Process ArtProcess Art is an artistic movement as well as a creative sentiment where the end product of art and craft, is not the principal focus. It emphasises the process of ‘art making,’ or the creation of an artwork; the gathering, sorting, collating, associating, design and composition.
Devised TheatreDevised theatre is a method of theatre-making through creative collaboration in which the script or performance score (if it is a predominantly physical work) is an end product that culminates from collaborative, often improvisatory work by a performing ensemble of actors.
Drama in Education (DIE)

Process Drama
Drama in Education developed primarily from the work of Brian Way, Dorothy Heathcote, Gavin Bolton et all. is a derivative from childrens’ spontaneous extended dramatic play. Children indulge in make believe and fictional role play as participants (without an audience) creating imaginary scenarios with an educational quality.

The teacher is often engaged in the dramatic context as a character herself, going along with the action or directing the development of the ongoing improvised drama from inside - a technique known as ‘teacher-in-role’.

The term has been extended to the use of drama as a medium for teaching and learning curricular subjects using techniques such as dramatisation and role play, games and improvisation.
Theatre-in-Education (TIE)TIE is a form of applied theatre incorporating the fields of arts and education, played in an educational setting by an outside group of trained adult actors.

Usually performed to secondary school students, the themes investigate social and political subjects as well as that of personal import. Audiences are engaged as active participants with a mixture of scripted theatre and improvised dramatic action.

A TIE package may include an interactive performance together with pre-performance and post-performance resource materials, or follow-up discussions to help students reflect on a topic in greater depth.
Theatre for Development
  1. • Theatre for Social Change
  2. • Theatre of Liberation
  3. • Popular Theatre
The concept of Theatre for Development draw inspiration from Latin-American liberation theology, and the work of Paulo Freire and Augusto Boal. It refers to theatre for and by ordinary people, played in their own language or idiom, often drawing on their own popular cultural traditions.

It engages communities (adults and children) in a process of creative problem-solving and community empowerment, to address issues of concern in their own communities. Often led by cultural activists, it also concentrates on involving participants in reflection, decision making, and organisation for common action.

The term is used interchangeably with Theatre for Social Change, Theater of Liberation and Popular Theatre.


General TerminologyTerminology specific to Arts Education Archive Malaysia (AEAM)
Physical Archives:
Refers to primary source historical records, documents and other materials that have accumulated over the course of work and kept in order to document/capture the form and function of the individual’s/organisation’s work.
Physical Archives:
Primary source raw materials and records on non-formal arts education in Malaysia which have been sourced from practitioners or organisations, and are stored as per the collectors’ practice of record keeping.

Current physical archives:
  1. FAC-Arts-ED Collection
Building or institution where the records are held.
AEAM Repository:
Raw archival records pertaining to AEAM are stored in either physical or digitalised form, in a repository. The repository for the FAC-Arts-ED physical collection is located at Arts-ED, Penang Malaysia.

AEAM Repositories:
  1. FAC-Arts-ED Collection:
    Arts-ED, Penang, Malaysia
Online Archives:
Online platform for display of electronic copies of documents and material records.
Arts Education Archive Malaysia (AEAM):
The AEAM website is a platform that displays the inventories of archival collections and archival interpretations based on physical records.

Website content currently displays the following materials:
  1. Archival Record Inventories of Selected Programmes and/or Projects from a Collection
  2. Archival interpretations of Selected Programmes and/or Projects (including relevant digitalised archival materials)
Archival Interpretation:
Seeking, extracting and putting together information from original records to make meaning of them.
AEAM Archival Interpretations:
Interpretative articles on case examples of Programmes and/or Projects tracing historical background, development, methodology, outputs, etc. Interpretations are based on archival documents and the collective memory of participants. It includes relevant scanned documents and images from the raw archival records.
Refers to an accumulation of documents brought together on the basis of some characteristic.
AEAM Collection(s):
Collections are focused on non-formal arts education for young people in Malaysia and have been catalogued and filed using categories in keeping with the collectors’ practice of record keeping.

FAC-Arts-ED Collection:
  1. Janet Pillai (Individual)
  2. Five Arts Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Organisation)
  3. Arts-ED, Penang (Organisation)
Archival records brought together in the course of their active life to form a discrete sequence.
Selected Programmes:
The raw archival records of the FAC-Arts-ED Collection have been brought together and arranged in a chronological ‘series’ of Programmes. Each Programme in this collection is retrospectively distinguished by its overarching aims or objectives, a discernible pedagogical approach, and sustained and structured activity over a period of 3-5 years.

Examples of Programmes in FAC-Arts-ED Collection:
  1. Teater Kanak-kanak KBN, 1978-1984
  2. Teater Muda KL-FAC, 1991-1999
  3. Young Theatre Penang, 1998-2000
A series divided further based on form, record type, or filing arrangement. In the course of its active life individual and organisational record collections were filed according to sub-series of PROJECTS.
Selected Projects:
The records for FAC-Arts-ED Collection have been further arranged into a chronological ‘sub-series’ called Projects. Within a Programme ('series') there may be several Projects ('sub-series' ). A Project refers to a course or activities (1 week - several months) and are process or end-product orientated. Some projects are standalone, while other projects consist of sub-projects which run concurrently within a project.

Examples of Projects in the FAC-Arts-ED Collection:
  1. Si Geroda
  2. Sri Ayu
Refers to a single item archival document or material record (in any format) within the archival collection.
AEAM Items:
Items in AEAM refer to the raw archival records. These primary source items may include: letters, minutes, printed reports, manuscripts, photographs, prints, audio cassette, video, digital media etc.)
Filing System:
Originals and copies of records and materials in tangible form that have been filed or arranged alphabetically, chronologically, numerically, topically, or some combination of the above in accordance with a filing system or maintained as a unit because they result from the same function, or the same activity; have a particular form; or because of some other relationship arising out of their creation.
AEAM Programme and Project Files:
Raw archival records from each collection are filed according to series and sub-series particular to the collector.

Raw archival records are filed and stored in boxes in keeping with its own series and sub-series.

FAC-Arts-ED files:
  1. Programme File: contains raw archival records filed by category and sub-category related to the Programme.
  2. Project File: contains raw archival records filed by category and sub-category, specific to each particular Project
File Categories:
Similar-type Items aggregated into categories or sub-categories in keeping with the collectors’ practice of record keeping.
AEAM File Categories:
Similar type Items are aggregated and named in accordance to the collectors’ practice of record keeping.

FAC-Arts-ED File Categories:
  1. Similar-type Items are aggregated into File Categories, e.g. ‘Administrative Documents.’
  2. Within each File Category items may be further aggregated into sub-categories, e.g.
    ‘Correspondence,’ ‘Proposals,’ etc.
  3. Within each Sub-category each item is assigned a File Code. This code can be found in the AEAM Record Inventory and can be called upon to access a document.
Record Inventory:
A listing of all archival record items in the series and sub-series.
AEAM Record Inventory:
All the items pertaining to Programmes and Projects are inventorised using file categories in keeping with the collectors’ practice.

The Record Inventory comprises an inventory data sheet that lists and indexes all raw archival items, into categories and sub-categories that are in keeping with the collectors’ practice. Each item within the inventory is filed by an assigned code, item title, a short description, author/source and/or date where applicable.

Basic archival terminology and principles for the AEAM were adapted from:
Alaska State Historical Records Advisory Board (2013) Arrangement & Description Manual for Processing Archival Collections (PDF)